A Silicone Reading List

Angell, M. 1992. Breast implants - Protection or paternalism. New Eng. J. Med. 326, 1695-1695.
Biorad. 1989. Acrylamide polymerization - A practical approach. Technical Bulletin 1156.
Borenstein, D. 1993. Clinical manifestations of 100 consecutive women with silicone breast implants. Arthritis and Rheumatism 36, S117.
Brantley S. K., Davidson, S.F., St. Arnold, P.A., Johnson, M.B. et al. 1990. Assessment of the lymphocyte response to silicone. Plastic and Recon. Surg. 86, 1131-1137.
Bridges, A.J., Conley, C., Wang, G., Burns, D.E., and Vasey, F.B. 1992. A clinical and immunological evaluation of women with silicone breast implants and symptoms of rheumatic disease. Arthritis and Rheumatism 35, S65.
Brozena, S.J., Fenske, N.A., Cruse, W., Espinoza, C.G., Vasey, F.B., Germain, B.F., and Espinoza, L.R. 1988. Human adjuvant disease following augmentation mammoplasty. Arch Dermatol. 124, 1383-1386.
CuŽllar, M.L., Gutierrez, M., Cabrera, G., Gharayl, A., and Espinoza, L.R. 1993a. Soluble intracellular adhesion molecule I (sICAM-1)and other acute phase reactants such as ESR and CRP are not elevated in silicone breast implant patients. Arthritis and Rheumatism 36, S219.
CuŽllar, M.L., Scopelitis, E., Citera, G., GutiŽrrez, M., Silveira, L.H., and Espinoza, L.R. 1993b. A prospective clinical evaluation of 300 women with silicone breast implants. Arthritis and Rheumatism 36, S219.
Dang, H., Feghali, C. A., Dauphinee, M.J., Talal, N., Garry, R.F., Seibold, J.R., Medsger, T.A., Jr., Alexander, S. 1991. Serum antibody to retroviral proteins in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 34, 1336-1337.
Edworthy, S.M., Martin, L., and Talvera, R. 1993. Symptoms reported by breast implant patients: Rheumatic disease or not? Arthritis and Rheumatism 36, S118.
Fisher, J.C. 1992. The silicone controversy - When will science prevail? New Eng. J. Med. 326, 1696-1698.
Gabriel, S.E., Melton, L.J., Woods, J.E., O'Fallon, W.M., and Kurtlad, L.T. 1993. Silicone containing breast implants and connective tissue diseases: A population-based retrospective cohort study. Arthritis and Rheumatism 36, S70.
Garry, R.F. 1990. Extensive antigenic mimicry by retrovirus capsid proteins. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 6, 1361-1362.
Garry, R.F., Fermin, C.D., Hart, D.J., Alexander, S.S., Donehower, L.A., and Luo-Zhang, H. 1990. Detection of a human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle antigenically-related to HIV. Science 250, 1127-1129,.
Garry, R.F., Hart, D.J., Tenenbaum, S.A., Luo-Zhang, H., Breeding, S.A.L., and Alexander, S.S. 1992. SjšgrenÕs Syndrome and retroviral infection. Arthritis and Rheumatism 35, 1405.
Garry, R.F., Witte, M., Gottlieb, A.A., Elvin-Lewis, M., Gottlieb, M., Witte, C., Alexander, S.S., Cole, W.R., Drake, W.L., Jr. 1988. Documentation of an AIDS virus infection in 1968. Journal of the American Medical Association 260, 2085-2087.
Germain, B.F. 1992. Silicone breast implants and rheumatic disease. Bulletin on the Rheum. Dis. 41, 1-5.
Goldblum, R.M., Pelley, R.P., OÕDonell, A.A., Pyron, D., and Heggers, J.P. 1992. Antibodies to silicone elastomers and reactions to ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Lancet 340, 510-13.
Goldman, J.A., Lamm, S.H., Cooper, W., and Cooper, L. 1992. Breast implants are not associated with an excess of connective tissue disease (CTD). Arthritis and Rheumatism 35, S65.
Hochberg, M.C., White, E., Medsger, T.A., Weisman, M., and Wigley, F.M. 1993. The association of augmentation mammography with systemic sclerosis: Preliminary analysis from a case-control study. Arthritis and Rheumatism 36, S71.
Kaiser, W., Bisenbach, G., Stuby, U., Grafinger, P., and Zazgornik, J. 1990. Human adjuvant disease: Remission of silicone-induced autoimmune disease after explantation of breast augmentation. Rheumatic Diseases 49, 937-938.
Keystone, E., Peters, W., Sow, K., Rubin, and Smith, D. 1993. Frequency of autoantobody detection in patients with silicone-gel implants. Arthritis and Rheumatism 36, S71.
Koeger, A.C., and Bourgeois, P. 1993. Systemic manifestations after silicone breast implants. Review of Rheumatology 60, 120-126.
Kossovsky, N., Heggers, J., and Robson, M.C. 1987, Experimental demonstration of the immunogenicity of silicone-protein complexes. J. Biomaterials Research 21, 1125-1133.
Kumagai, Y., Abe, C., and Shiokawa, Y. 1979. Scleroderm after cosmetic surgery. Arthritis and Rheumatism 22, 532-537.
Kumagai, Y., Shiokawa, Y. Medsger, T.A., and Rodnan, G.P. 1984. Clinical spectrum of connective tissue disease after cosmetic surgery. Arthritis and Rheumatism 27, 1-12
Lilla, J.A., and Vistnes, L.M. 1976. Long-term study of reactions to various silicone breast implants in rabbits. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 57, 637-649.
Manino, D., Vuotto, M.L., Minucci, M. 1984. Effects of a crystalline silica on antibody production to T-dependent and T-independent antigens in Balb/c mice. Int Archs Allergy Appl. Immun. 73, 10-13.
Martin, L., Edworthy, S.M., and Fritzler, M.J. 1993. Autoantibodies in patients with Silicone gel filled breast implants. Arthritis and Rheumatism 36, S117.
Miyoshi, K., Miyamura, T., Kobayashi, Y., et al. 1964. Hypergammaglobulinemia by prolonged adjuvanticity in man. Disorders developed after augmentation mammaplasty. Jpn. Med J. no. 2122, 9-14.
Morse, J.H., and Spiera, H. 1992. Autoimmune disease, immunoglobulin isotypes and lymphocyte subsets in 30 females with breast augmentation mammoplasty. Arthritis and Rheumatism 35, S65.
Muhanna, A., Rubin L., Keystone, E., Peters, W., Ayer, L., and Fritzer, M. 1992. Silicone breast implants and rheumatic disease clinical and immunological investigations. Arthritis and Rheumatism 35, S65
Naim. J.O., Lanzafame, R.J., van Oss, C.J. 1993. The Adjuvant effect of silicone-gel on antibody formation in the rats. Immunological Investigations 22, 151-161.
Okano, Y, Nishikai, M., and Sato, A. 1984. Sclerderma, primary biliary cirrhosis, and SjšgrenÕs Syndome after cosmetic breast augmentation with silicone injection: a case report of possible human adjuvant disease. Annals of the Rheumatic Disease 43, 520-522.
Osborn, T.G., Wilson, V.G., Hanna, V.E., Ghosh, S., and Moore, T.L. 1993. Laboratory evaluation of Rheumatologic patients with silicone gel breast implants. Arthritis and Rheumatism 36, S118.
Ostermeyer-Shoaib, B., and Patten, B.M. 1992. Rheumatologic and neurologic findings in silicone adjuvant breast disease. Arthritis and Rheumatism 35, S65.
Peimer, C.A., Medige, J., Eckert, B.S., Wright, J.R., and Howard, C.S. 1986. Reactive synovitis after silicone arthroplasty. J. Hand Surgery 11A, 624-638.
Picha, G.J., and Goldstein, J.A. 1990. Analysis of the soft-tissue response to components used in the manufacture of breast implants: Rat animal model. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 87, 490-500.
Press, R.I., Peebles, C.L., Kumagai, Y., Ochs, R.L., and Tan, E.M. 1992. Antinuclear autoantibodies in women with silicone breast implants. Lancet 340, 1304-1307.
Rheinstein, P.H., and Bagley G.P. 1992. Update on breast implants. Amer. Fam Phys. 45, 472-3, 1992.
Ruby, A.J., Lissner, G.S., and OÕGrady, R. 1991. Surface reaction on silicone tubes used in the treatment of nasolacrimal drainage system obstruction. Opthalmic Surgery 22, 745-748.
Sahn, E.E., Garen, P.D., Silver, R.M., and Maize, J.C. 1990. Scleroderma following augmentation mammoplasty. Arch. Dermatology 126, 1198-1202.
Sergott, T.J., Limoli, J.P., Baldwin, C.M., and Laub, D.R. 1986. Human Adjuvant disease possible autoimmune disease after silicone implantation: A review of the literature, case studies, and speculation for the future. Plastic and Recon. Surg. 78, 104-114.
Solomon, G. 1993. Clinical and serological features of 176 women with silicone implants: Evidence for a novel disease. Arthritis and Rheumatism 36, S117.
Spiera, H., Scleroderma after silicone augmentation mammoplasty. JAMA. 260: 236-238, 1988.
Talal, N. Garry, R.F., Alexander, S.S., Dauphinee, M.J., Ballester, A., Takei, M., and Dang, H. 1990. A conserved idiotype and antibodies to retroviral proteins in systemic lupus erythematosus. J. Clinical Invest. 85, 1866-1871.
Talal, N., Dauphinee, M.J., Dang, H., Alexander, S.S., Hart, D.J., and Garry, R.F. 1990. Detection of serum antibodies to retroviral proteins in patients with primary Sjšgren's syndrome (autoimmune exocrinopathy). Arthritis and Rheumatism 33, 774-781.
Tenenbaum, S.A., CuŽllar, M.L., Citera, G., Silveira, L.H., Garry, R.F. and Espinoza, L.R. 1993. Identification of a novel antigen recognized by silicone breast implant recipients. Arthritis and Rheumatism 36, S118.
Teuber, S.S., Rowley, M.J., and Gershwin, M.E. 1993. Anti-collagen antibodies are present in women with silicone breast implants. J. Autoimmunity 6, 367-377.
Touchette, N. 1992. Silicone implants and autoimmune disease: Studies fail to gel. J. of NIH Res. 4, 49-52.
van Nunen, S.A., Gatenby, P.A., and Basten, A. 1982. Post-mammoplasty connective tissue disease Arthritis and Rheumatism 25, 694-697.
Varga, J., Schumacher, R., and Jimenez, S.A. 1989. Systemic sclerosis after augmentation mammoplasty with silicone implants. Annuals of Internal Medicine 111, 377-383.
Walsh, F.W., Solomon, D.A., Espinoza, L.R., Adams, G.D., and Whitelocke, H.E. 1989. Human adjuvant disease. Arch Intern Med. 149, 1194-1196.
Ward, C., and Romer, S. 1993. Prospective follow up study of women with breast implants (BI) and musculoskeletal manifestations. Arthritis and Rheumatism 36, S220.
Wickham, M.G., Rudolph, R., and Abraham, J.L. 1978. Silicone identification in prothesis-associated fibrous capsules. Science 199, 437438.
Wrona, N., Koeger, A.-C., Lefranc, J.-P., Rozenberg, S., Meyer, O., Blondon, J., and Bourgeis, P. 1993. Systemic clinical and immunological manifestations following silicone mammoplasty. Arthritis and Rheumatism 36, S144.


Horner, H.J., Weiler, J.E., Angelotti, "Visible and Infrared Spectroscopic Determination of Trace Amounts of Silicones in Foods and Biological Materials", Anal. Chem., 32(7), 858-861, (1960).
Estes, Z.E., Faust, R.M., "A Colorimetric Method for the Determination of Silicon in Biological Materials", Anal. Biochem., 13, 518-522, (1965).
Neal, P., "Note on the Atomic Absorption Analysis of Dimethylpolysiloxanesi In the Presence of Silicates", J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 52(4), 875-876, (1969).
Neal, P., Campbell, A.D., Firestone, D., "Low Temperature Separation of Trace Amounts of Dimethylpolysiloxanes from Food", J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc., 46, 561-562, (1969).
Sinclair, A., Hallam, T.R., "The Determination of Dimethylsiloxane in Beer and Yeast, Analyst, 96, 149-154, 1971.Howard, J.W., "Report on Food Additives", J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 55(2), 262, (1972).
Frick, R., Baudisch, H., "Physico-chemical Determination of Intravascular Silicone in Brain and Kidney", Beitr. Path. Bd., 149, 39-46, (1973).
Cassidy, R.M., Hurteau, M.T., Mislan, J.P., Ashley, R.W., "Preconcentration of Organosilicons on Porous Polymers and Separation by Molecular-Seive and REversed-Phase Chromatography with an Atomic Absorption Detection System", J. Chromatog. Sci., 14, 444-447, (1976).
Vessman, J., Hammar, C., Lindeke, B., Stromberg, S., LeVier, R., Robinson, R., Spielvogel, D., Hanneman, L., "Analysis of Some Organosilicone Compounds in Biological Material", In Biochemistry of Silicon and Related Problems; Bendz, G, Lindqvist, I., Eds.; Plenum: New York, 1977; pp 535-558.
Pellenbarg, R., "Enviromental Poly(organosiloxanes) (Silicones)", Environmental Science and Technology, 13(5), 565-569, (1979).
Abraham, J.L., Etz, E.S., "Molecular Microanalysis of Pathological Specimens in situ with a Laser-Raman Microprobe", Science, 206, 716-718, (1979).
Pellenbarg, R., "Enviromental Poly(organosiloxanes) (Silicones)", Environmental Science and Technology, 13(5), 565-569, (1979).
Buch, R.R., Ingebrightson, D.N., "Rearrangement of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Fluids on Soil", Environmental Science and Technology, 13(6), 676-679, (1979).
Doeden, W.G., Kushibab, E.M., Ingala, A.C., "Determination of Dimethylpolysiloxanes in Fats and Oils", J. Amer. Oil Chemists Soc., 57(2), 73-74, (1980)
Abe, Y., Butler, G.B., Hogen-Esch, T.E., "Photolytic Oxidative Degradation of Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane and Related Compounds", J. Macromol. Sci., Chem., A16(2), 461-471, (1981).
Leong, A.S.-Y., Disney, A.P.S., Grove, D.W., "Spallation and Migration of Silicone from Blood-Pump Tubing in Patients on Hemodialysis", N. Engl. J. Med., 306(3), 135-140, (1982).
Baker, J.L., LeVier, R.R., Spielvogel, D.E., "Positive Identification of Silicone in Human Mammary Capsular Tissue", Plast. Reconst. Surg., 69(1), 56-60, (1982).
Kacprzak, J.L., "Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic Determination of Dimethylpolysiloxane in Juices and Beer", J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 65(1), 148-150, (1982).
Mahone, L.G., Garner, P.J., Buch, R.R., Lane, T.H., Tatera, J.F., Smith, R.C., Frye, C.L., "A Method for the Qualitative and Quantitative Characterization of Waterborne Organosilicon Substances", Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2, 307-313,(1983).
Buch, R.R., Lane, T.H., Annelin, R.B., Frye, C.L., "Photolytic Oxidative Demethylation of Aqueous Dimethylsiloxanols",  Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 3, 215-222, (1984).
Watanabe, N., Yasuda, Y., Kato, K., Nakamura, T., "Determination of Trace Amounts of Siloxanes in Water, Sediments and Fish Tissues by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry", The Science of the Total Environment, 34, 169-176, (1984).
Bruggeman, W.A., Weber-Fung, D., Opperhuizen, A., Van der Steen, J., Wijbenga, A., Hutzinger, O., "Absorption and Retention of Polydimethylsiloxanes (Silicones) in Fish: Preliminary Experiments", Toxicol. Environ. Chem., 7,287-296, (1984).
McCamey, D.A., Iannelli, D.P., Bryson, L.J., Thorpe, T.M., "Determination of Silicone in Fats and Oils by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with In-Furnace Air Oxidation", Anal. Chim. Acta., 188, 119-126, (1986).
Anderson, C., Hochgeschwender, K., Weidemann, H., Wilmes, R., "Studies of the Oxidative Photoinduced Degradation of Silicones in the Aquatic Environment", Chemosphere, 16(10-12), 2567-2577, (1987).
Watanabe, N., Nagase, H., Ose, Y., "Distribution of Silicones in Water, Sediment and Fish in Japanese Rivers", The Science of the Total Enviroment, 73, 1-9, (1988).
Winding, O., Christensen, L., Thomsen, J.L., Nielsen, M., Breiting, V., Brandt, B., "Silicon in Human Breast Tissue Surrounding Silicone Gel Prostheses", Scand. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg., 22, 127-130, (1988).
Annelin, R.B., Frye, C.L., "The Piscine Bioconcentration Characteristics of Cyclic and Linear Oligomeric Permethylsiloxanes", The Science of the Total Environment, 83, 1-11, (1989).
Parker, R.D., "Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Polydimethylsiloxane Residues in Pineapple Juice: Collaborative Study", J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 73(5), 721-723, (1990).
Nakamura, K., Refojo, M.F., Crabtree, D.V., "Factors Contributing to the Emulsification of Intraocular Silicone and Fluorosilicone Oils", Invest. Ophth. Vis. Sci., 31(4), 647-656, (1990).
Nakamura, K., Refojo, M.F., Crabtree, D.V., Leong, F., "Analysis and Fractionation of Silicone and Fluorosilicone Oils for Intraocular Use", Invest. Ophth. Vis. Sci., 31(10), 2059-2069, (1990).
Gaboury, S.R., Urban, M.W., "Spectroscopic Evidence for Si-H Formation During Microwave Plasma Modification of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Elastomer Surfaces", Polym. Commun., 32(13), 390-392, (1991).
Israeli, Y., Philippart, J.-L., Cavezzan, J., Lacoste, J., Lemaire, J., "Photo-oxidation of Polydimethylsiloxane Oils: Part I - Effect of Silicon Hydride Groups", Polym. Degradation. Stab., 36, 179-185, (1992)
"Selective Detection of Cyclic Silicon Compounds Extracted from Silicone Breast Implants"; DET Report No. 22, March, 1992; DETector Engineering and Technology, Inc., Walnut Creek, CA.
Still not convinced? Here are more:

 [1] Ostenmeyer B, Patten BM, Calkins DS. Adjuvant breast disease: a clinical evaluation of 100 symptomatic women with silicone breast implants or silicone fluid injections into the breast. Keio Med J 1994; 43: 79-87.

[2] Lappe, M. 'Nonreactive' Chemicals lack Adverse Effects in Chemical   Deception. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1991.

[3] Kessler DA, Merkatz RB, Schapiro R. A  call for higher standards for breasts implants. JAMA 1993; 270: 2607-8.

[4] Kessler DA. The basis of  the FDA's decision of breast implants. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 1713-15.

[5] Kumagai Y, Shiokawa Y, Medsger TA, et al. Clinical spectrum of connective tissue disease after cosmetic surgery. Arthrit  Rheumat 1984; 27: 1-12.

[6] Kossovsky N, Heggers JP, Robson MC. The bioreactivity of silicone.  Crit Rev Biocompat 1987; 3: 53-85.

[7] Hausner R, Schoen FJ, Pierson KK. Foreign body reaction of  silicone-gel in axillary lymph nodes after augmentation mammoplasty. Plastic Reconstruct Surg 1978; 62: 381-3.

[8] Hilts PJ. Maker of implants says silicone-gel poses health risks. Houston Chron 1993; 20 March: 1-2.

[9] Cronin T, Gerow F. Augmentation mammoplasty, a new natural fell  prosthesis. In: Transactions of the Third International Congress of Plastic and Reconstructive  Surgery. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1964; 41-2. [Reference]

[10] Brozema SJ. Fenske NA, Cruse CW et al. Human adjuvant disease following augmentation mammoplasty. Arch Dermatol 1988; 124: 1383-6.

[11] Cuellar M, et al. Silicone breast implants  associated with musculo-skeletal manifestations. Clin Rheumat 1995; 14: 667-72.

[12] Human  Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee of the Committee on Government  Operations. The FDA's Regulation of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: US Government  Printing Office, 1992.

[13] Heggers JP. Kossovsky N, Parsons RW, et al. Biocompatability of silicone implants. Ann Plastic Surg 1983; 11: 3845.

[14] Jenny H, Smahe L. Clinicopathological  correlation in pseudocapsule formation after breast augmentation. Aesth Plastic Surg 1981; 5: 63-8.

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